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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

The new numbers, reported by a tracking initiative called the Global Carbon Project and published in the journal Nature Geoscience, came on the eve of a United Nations summit meeting meant to harness fresh political ambition in tackling climate change. Scientists said the figures showed that vastly greater efforts would be needed to get long-term global warming within tolerable limits.

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Paris is in third place with 18.03 million forecast visitors.
Those trade flows, published by the General Administration of Customs, resulted in China’s trade surplus rising than $2bn to $40.2bn, surpassing October’s revised figure of $38.2bn and well ahead of September’s revised six-month low of $28.6b. November’s trade surplus was also ahead of the $35bn forecast by economists.
The government is keen to encourage lending to small and medium-sized borrowers, many of whom do not have credit histories. Analysts estimate the number of Chinese consumers who are financially active but without access to credit to be 500m.

这种增长为中国电影业未来的发展奠定了坚实的基础。
We will promote a steady increase in consumer spending.
However it's framed, 2018 was a strong year for many of China's biggest domestic film studios though.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

发改委:《政府制定价格听证办法》明年1月10日起施行

简言之,2014年种种相反的趋势无法描述和解释。我也不信,多年之后,人们凭借后见之明,能将今年发生的种种事情看得更清楚。
高中版的霍华德不像NBA版的霍华德那样令人生畏。如此看来,成为一个NBA巨星,霍华德付出了十倍的努力。
The state-sponsored purchasing managers' index fell from 50.8 in October to 50.3 in November, the lowest reading since March. Any level above 50 indicates expansion.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

On China's Twitter-like Weibo, many netizens thumbed up the boy's bravery and calmness in the face of such emergency.
此次涵盖95个项目(去年为90个)的排行榜中,来自7个国家的9所院校为首次进入榜单。排名第41位的法兰克福金融管理学院(Frankfurt School of Finance & Management)是今年排名最高的新入榜者。这家德国学院拥有性别比例最平衡的项目之一,女性占学员总数的49%。
为什么小皇帝詹姆斯不在双头肌和肩膀上再带那些奇怪的饰物,对此我很好奇。当然,我敢打赌他不会再带那些东西——因为它们没啥用处。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 因为吉吉·哈迪德和凯蒂·派瑞等多位模特和表演者在申请签证时遇到了一系列问题,维密秀的主办方正试图使一切回到正轨,如今主办方又表示,中国政府还拦截了他们的邮件。
  • 2014全国房价涨幅收窄 报告称基本告别泡沫时代
  • Also featured in the 2013 top 10 were Singapore, Zurich, Paris, the Venezuelan capital of Caracas and Geneva.
  • 北京南苑共有产权房明起申购
  • 2018年全球智能家居产业规模将达710亿
  • Comic skit “You’ve Got Trouble”(Sun Tao, Qin Hailu etc)
    挖掘者认为这个墓地可追溯到1700年前,在当时的中国,库车在控制西部前线(西域)上扮演着关键的角色。由于丝绸之路的路线有经过西域,所以控制这个关键的区域对中国统治者来说是非常重要的。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 呼和浩特楼市新政震惊全国 “抢人大战”格局生变, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

打破传统困境 地板企业如何打开线上市场

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

九大LED封装上市公司2015年下半年发展策略分析

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 鲜菜价格同比上涨13%,助推食品价格同比上涨3.7%,涨幅比上月扩大0.5个百分点。
    "That of course is in keeping with all of the developments that we have seen in China in recent years, including the current enormous emphasis on innovation as a major component in the transition of the Chinese economy from 'Made in China' to 'Created in China'," he said.
  • The advantages for schools seem clear: they enjoy the benefits of bright graduates who would otherwise have gone straight into consulting.
    前述北京微信用户Robin Wang说,11年前他是一位忠实的QQ用户,但现在已经停用这款即时通讯服务,因为它显得不够专业。但自从在手机上下载微信之后,他发现多数同事和朋友都在上面,现在大家都通过语音邮件交流了。
    China's newly issued lunar New Year monkey stamps marking 2016, another Year of the Monkey, also designed by Huang and each with a face value of 1.20 yuan, have attracted much attention, with collectors lining up outside post offices ahead of their release.
    唐同学怀疑水中被混合了有毒物质,便把此事报告给班长和老师。
    出租房

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 对楼市预期 下半年杭州还会走“独立行情”吗
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 报告:36%非婚人群青睐长租公寓 90后更重隐私空间

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

You can make eye contact with the professor. Don't underestimate the power of this. If your teacher knows you're really listening and that you care about what you're learning, he or she will be extra willing to help you. Besides, it'll feel like you've got your own private teacher.
['epik]
In early November the government further tightened controls over outbound investment by requiring regulatory approval for some foreign acquisitions conducted through an offshore entity.
Property prices in Hong Kong have surged over the past decade, but hit a peak in September when jitters about China’s economy took hold.
The Nets should really feel free to tank out if only to get assets for the players who aren't integral to culture change and won't be on the next very good Brooklyn team. That means Brook Lopez, basically. The market on him is weird, but presuming it exists, it should be explored.
[s?'vaiv?l]
“有个家伙有一天跟所有同事说这是他最后一天了,结果却没让老板和人力资源部经理知道。”

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Americans: While you're here, why not pretend to be Canadian? Very few Britons can tell the difference, and it will allow you to rescue yourself from awkward conversations about the death penalty.
  • 家居业掀“自制标准”风:衣柜业重在落实
  • 茱莉亚哈茨
    近几年,得益于世界日新月异,就像保护异性夫妻一样, LGBT群体(女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋、跨性别人士)也会得到同样的权利保障。事实上,如今60%的美国人承认同性婚姻的合法性,如果你问那剩余的40%呢?我们可以告诉你美国的其他地方以及世界的其他地方,例如俄罗斯,很快都会赶上脚步。
  • 世邦魏理仕潘可维:房地产市场终将回归理性
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 许多人认为韩国流行音乐产业的崛起是这个整容热潮背后的原因,许多人带着明星的照片来到整形医院,要求仿照明星的鼻型或眼睛来整容。
    Talk show host and comedian Ellen DeGeneres will host the Oscars ceremony for a second time.
  • The Kings also still owe a future first (unprotected in 2019 at worst) to Philly for the honor of being able to sign Rajon Rondo, Kosta Koufos, and Marco Belinelli. Talk about a team with no damn plan.
    [freim]
  • adj. 现代风格的,流行的,潇洒的
    Opposition is legitimate, opinion free and power curbed.
  • Beijing Capital International Airport performed slightly better, with its punctuality rate reaching 60.7%.
    TextPride是一门不错的生意,就是规模太小。与此同时,短信应用市场正在爆炸式增长。Facebook公司斥资190亿美元并购了WhatsApp,这款产品的每月活跃用户现已达到7亿人。拥有2.5亿注册用户的应用Tango目前市值15亿美元。Kik拥有2亿注册用户。Snapchat价值100亿美元,拥有一亿用户。Kik赞助的一项新研究表明,美国用户现在花在短信应用上的平均时间要多于社交网络应用。不过唯一的问题是,这些短信应用需要找到赚钱的手段,目前广告主还没找到靠谱的方式插入朋友间的聊天之中。
    One of the men even swoops in to give the girl a quick kiss on the cheek. He turns around in mock-embarrassment and gives his friend a hug, while the young woman speaks to her friend in French.
  • 1.《廷巴克图》,导演:阿伯德拉马纳·希萨柯(Abderrahmane Sissako)。
    公司的运营情况不好。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 中关村分园部分项目可获40%房租补贴 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

各地加码楼市调控 一线城市住宅成交量下滑23.5%

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

温州家具品牌“内冷外热”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

深圳:建筑废弃物去向可“追踪”

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

租金一涨租客就跑:节后北京房屋租赁市场平稳

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 5. “Carol” (Todd Haynes)
  • 2. Organize
  • 武汉整治房地产市场 22人收“茶水费”等违法违规被刑拘

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 罗杰斯对于中间剧情的反转十分不满,因此在拍完前三季之后决定离开剧组。这样的违约行为使他面临数百万美元的诉讼。但讽刺的是,韦恩·罗杰斯从来没有正式和剧组签订过合同(他涉及道德条款方面的问题)。因此该诉讼请求被驳回。你可能会说在这次的事件中,罗杰斯是笑到最后的人,但自从他离开剧组,《风流医生俏护士》又播出了八季,而罗杰斯在他的演艺生涯中再也没有取得过这样的成就。所以说他是笑到最后的人,也许只是一个相对的说法。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • France’s HEC Paris and Essec Business School remained second and third, respectively, for the third year running.
    Mila Kunis placed second on the list, followed by Kate Upton, pop star Rihanna and Emma Stone.
    DOWNTON ABBEY (PBS, Sunday) Season 5 begins with new blows to Lord Grantham’s self-esteem and the somewhat Victorian touch of an illegitimate baby hidden away in a cottage. For those who haven’t already pirated the British broadcasts or read the recaps, let’s just say that the first episode involves a very heated situation.
  • “环境越来越受到政策制定者的重视。”世界黄金协会市场情报部门负责人阿利斯泰尔?休伊特(Alistair Hewitt)说,“黄金开采受到更严格的监管。”

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • "过去,大熊猫很难进行圈养,但是经过成都熊猫基地和世界各地许多动物园的通力合作,人类已经攻克了这个难题。目前世界上已经有了将近400只人工大熊猫。" 马文如是说。
  • 第五届闽龙文化节即将开幕 打造建材行业文化盛宴
  • Russia regards itself as a great power - it is not in question anywhere inside the country.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 小区业主卖房时联合涨价是否违法?涉嫌扰乱市场吗
  • Household substance abuse
  • 湾田豪掷3亿打造大型家居商城
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

不只30城!楼市专项治理行动扩围

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 房屋出租方走向规模化 租房时代要保护好租户权利
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 买婚房却买到凶宅 房屋死过人房东却假装不知情
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Stand: Apple CEO Tim Cook fought for workplace protection for the LGBT community

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Apple Inc. CEO Steve Jobs introduces the iPad 2 on stage during an Apple event in San Francisco, California in this March 2, 2011,
节目13 歌曲《嫦娥》,李玉刚 景海鹏 刘旺 刘洋
Economic forecasters are counting on 2014 to be a breakout year. But whether the economy finally moves past its sluggish growth will rest on several forces playing out differently than they have since the recovery began. Some of the key questions:
However, another 876 jobs being offered have not registered a single applicant as of Tuesday, according to Zhonggong. For instance, nobody has so far shown any interest in becoming a railway police officer in Shanghai and Xi'an.
仿佛是2016年对中国员工还不够艰难,一项年度调查披露,中国逾半数白领雇员在即将到来的(开销巨大的)农历春节假期来临前没有领到年终奖。
A Bubble With No Name Yet is still a bubble. But, Americans are too distracted, too numb, too in denial to hear the warnings. Reminds me of my headline back on March 20, 2000. 'Next crash, sorry you'll never hear it coming.'
8.Show Appreciation
马特达蒙凭借他在《火星救援》中扮演的被困宇航员一角而荣获喜剧类最佳男主角奖项。
Coca-Cola cut its sales forecast for this year as it struggles with a consumer slowdown in China, sending the drinks group’s shares down more than 3 per cent.
To SKN Company in Russia for exploding old Russian ammunition and creating diamonds. Now that's recycling!

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

食品、建材等5类质量安全问题亟待破解

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 项目总成本:9.8906万美元
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • ? Heavy snow has fallen in West Virginia, with up to 17 inches in Webster Springs. The National Weather Service has warned that more is on the way.
  • 陶瓷企业“跳楼价”拼抢市场
  • Who was buried here?
  • 海南陵水将举办国际潜水节 探索旅游新业态
  • 该研究基于数亿个安全问题的答案以及数百万条恢复账号登录的请求。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 瓷砖经销商如何实现快速铺货 赢得利益?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • However, the state is also wary of the fast growth in online finance, which is largely unregulated and the risks of systemic crises may be high. Since 2007, 370 P2P lending platforms have failed in China, of which 270 failed in the past year, according to research by Morgan Stanley and Wangdaizhijia, a Chinese research group.
  • 伊丽莎白?泰勒和理查德?伯顿的爱情之

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

津提升公租房智能化管理运营 实行“一卡通”

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